SQL Scalar functions

SQL scalar functions return a single value, based on the input value.

Useful scalar functions:

* UCASE() - Converts a field to upper case
* LCASE() - Converts a field to lower case
* MID() - Extract characters from a text field
* LEN() - Returns the length of a text field
* ROUND() - Rounds a numeric field to the number of decimals specified
* NOW() - Returns the current system date and time
* FORMAT() - Formats how a field is to be displayed

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